Czech Invention: Sugar Cube

After the end of the Napoleonic wars, attempts at extracting sugar from sugar beet were resumed in the Habsburg monarchy in the 1820s. The first modern type sugar manufacture in the western part of the Habsburg monarchy was founded in Kostelní Vydří nearby Dačice in the estate of Karel Maxmilián Dalberg in 1829. In 1833, František Grebner, with the financial support of Viennese banker J.B. Puthon, established a sugar refinery directly in Dačice. The Dačice refinery resumed the tradition of the sugar factory in Kostelní Vydří. Dačice sugar was supplied to Southwest Moravia, South and East Bohemia as well as to Austrian borderlands. Sugar was also sold from warehouses of the Dačice refinery established in Vienna, Pest, Lvov, and also in Brno. Jakub Kryštof Rad, the refinery director, established a manufacture of candied fruit, sweets, and chocolate in Dačice in 1841, in which he also involved his wife Juliana, in order to make better use of some of the sugar refinery products. The difficult-to-use shapes of sugar products, such as cones, hats, or loaves, made Jakub Kryštof Rad to come up with the idea of sugar cubes. Cone-shape sugar was impractical both for business and private use – cones were difficult to pack and easy to break. Also, attempts at cutting an exact amount of sugar were not always successful and a lot of sugar was wasted. The patent for the production of sugar cubes was soon acquired by Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, Switzerland, and England. An improved form of Rad’s invention is still used by sugar refineries all around the world.

Date of Issue: 6 March 2019, Size: 23 x 40 mm, Designer: Jiří Slíva

The Sovereign Military Order of Malta

The Sovereign Military Order of Malta belongs to the oldest Catholic orders. Its objective is to help all people in need equally. Its traditional main activities include running hospitals. The order was founded in Jerusalem as early as the 11th century. It is not subject to any country or international organisation. Its sovereignty guarantees a unique diplomatic position when dealing with international conflicts and providing urgent care in case of crisis anywhere in the world. It has been headquartered in Rome since 1834. The order has been active in the Czech lands continuously since the 12th century. Its current focus is on supporting and helping elderly or disabled people and other people in need. It does so through a wide network of professional workers. The Czech grand priory (officially, the Grand Priory of Bohemia) is one of six territorial grand priories. The other ones are based in Rome, Naples, Venezia, England, and Austria. The order also has six sub-priories and 47 national associations.

Date of Issue: 6 March 2019, Size: 23 x 40 mm, Designer: Karel Zeman

Rudolf Tomáš Jedlička

Rudolf Tomáš Jedlička was born in Lysá nad Labem on 20 February 1869 into a family of a general practitioner and later health councillor, doctor Michal Jedlička. Rudolf Tomáš Jedlička completed primary school and started studying at the German-language grammar school at Prague’s Lesser Town, from where he transferred to the Czech-language Academic Grammar School. He graduated from the Czech-language medical faculty in Prague in 1892, and became an assistant physician at Professor Maydl’s Surgery Clinic in Prague in 1895. In 1901, Jedlička qualified in surgical pathology and therapy. He was appointed the head physician at the clinic and opened his own medical practice. In 1914, Rudolf Tomáš Jedlička opened the Prague Sanatorium in Podolí. He was appointed a regular professor of surgery and X-ray imaging and the first head physician of the 2nd Surgery Clinic of Charles University in 1921. Jedlička is the founder of independent Czech X-ray imaging and radiology and therapeutic rehabilitation. He promoted the use of X-ray imaging in diagnosis and treatment of cancer. A few months after the famous X-ray discovery, he was the first physician in Czechoslovakia to use X-rays in the diagnosis before surgery. In 1913, he also founded the Institute for Disabled Children in Prague, named Jedlička’s Institute in his honour. Rudolf Jedlička died on 26 October 1926 in Harrachov as a result of X-ray exposure..

Date of Issue: 14 February 2019, Size: 40 x 23 mm, Designer: Jan Kavan, Engraver: Bohumil Šneider

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